Types Of Budgets And Budgeting Process
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From GASB 54:

  • Nonspendable fund balance includes amounts that are not in a spendable form (inventory, for example) or are required to be maintained intact (the principal of an endowment fund, for example).
  • Restricted fund balance includes amounts that can be spent only for the specific purposes stipulated by external resource providers (for example, grant providers), constitutionally, or through enabling legislation (that is, legislation that creates a new revenue source and restricts its use). Effectively, restrictions may be changed or lifted only with the consent of resource providers.
  • Committed fund balance includes amounts that can be used only for the specific purposes determined by a formal action of the government’s highest level of decision-making authority. Commitments may be changed or lifted only by the government taking the same formal action that imposed the constraint originally.
  • Assigned fund balance comprises amounts intended to be used by the government for specific purposes. Intent can be expressed by the governing body or by an official or body to which the governing body delegates the authority. In governmental funds other than the general fund, assigned fund balance represents the amount that is not restricted or committed. This indicates that resources in other governmental funds are, at a minimum, intended to be used for the purpose of that fund.
  • Unassigned fund balance is the residual classification for the general fund and includes all amounts not contained in the other classifications. Unassigned amounts are technically available for any purpose. If another governmental fund has a fund balance deficit, then it will be reported as a negative amount in the unassigned classification in that fund. Positive unassigned amounts will be reported only in the general fund.
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